Waste management system: the fourth, fifth and sixth stages of the waste technological cycle

In the previous issue of the section “Humanity. Society. Nature” we began to get acquainted with the waste management system as the main principle of the environmental legislation of the Republic. In this issue we will get acquainted with the fourth, fifth and sixth stages of the waste cycle.

Sorting (4th stage) - separation and (or) mixing of waste according to certain criteria into qualitatively different components. Separation of garbage is done in order to avoid mixing different types of waste and environmental pollution. This process allows the waste to give a “second life”, in most cases due to its secondary use and recycling. Separation of garbage allows the most efficient use of resources, returning recycled types of waste to production. The separation of food and vegetable waste helps prevent the formation of combustible gases in landfills. Consequently, the probability of fires at landfills and the harmful effects on the environment are reduced. Sorting is the basis of an environmentally friendly economy, since if you only sort paper and plastic, which form 70% of household waste, only 30% of garbage will go to landfills. It’s not enough just to set up containers for separate waste collection. To perform more complex actions instead of the usual and simple, people need motivation. Three containers are installed for sorting garbage: for waste paper, for plastic bottles and for glass (cullet). Everything else should go into non-recyclable waste containers.

Comprehensive information materials with a description of the fractions that can be stored in each container and those that cannot be glued must be glued onto the containers. Despite the fact that checks from stores, paper cups and napkins are very similar to waste paper, they are not recyclable, and their entry into the paper container makes it difficult to further sort.

Certification (5th stage) - compilation of passports for waste. The waste passport is an information and regulatory document containing information about the composition of the waste, the type or types (including classes) of their hazard, possible technologies for safe and resource-saving waste management.

Upon receipt of additional information that increases the completeness and reliability of the data included in the mandatory sections, the hazardous waste passport is subject to updating and re-registration. In the event of a change in the hazardous properties of the waste caused by a change in the technological regulations of the process in which the waste was generated, the hazardous waste passport ceases to be valid. A hazardous waste passport may be required at every stage of waste management, whether it be transportation or disposal of waste. After all, companies that carry out the collection, transportation and disposal of waste must have all the information about them.

Waste packaging (6th stage) - ensuring by established methods and means (by packing in containers or other containers, packaging, briquetting with appropriate labeling) the integrity and safety of the waste during sorting, loading, transportation, storage, storage in designated places . Particular attention is paid to the packaging and labeling of hazardous waste. Solid waste is collected in reusable containers or disposable bags with white markings. Disposable bags are located on special trolleys or inside reusable tanks. Filled reusable containers or disposable bags are delivered to the places where container containers are installed and loaded into containers designed for collecting waste from this group. Reusable containers after collection and emptying must be washed and disinfected.

Bulky waste is collected at container sites for bulky waste. All waste is collected with the allocation of secondary material resources (textiles, plastic, glass, metals, etc.) in disposable sealed packaging in accordance with the requirements of sanitary rules. Secondary material resources are recycled.

Waste generated prior to export under contracts is temporarily stored in the enterprise:

- waste fluorescent lamps - on metal racks in a temporary storage warehouse in factory cardboard packaging. The packaging of the manufacturer minimizes the possibility of battle and, consequently, the ingress of mercury and its compounds into the environment;

- used batteries from motor vehicles and diesel generators-in a specially equipped place inside the room with the indication "Used batteries", which allows you to temporarily accumulate these wastes;

- used motor and turbine oils - in closed, sealed metal barrels with the indication “Used oil” with pallets, is exported according to the contract as they accumulate;;

- oiled cleaning rags and waste oil filters, fine filters-in special containers, in accordance with fire safety requirements, as they accumulate, they are exported under the contract;

- oil-contaminated sludge (fuel oil storage areas); during removal, it is transported as it accumulates;

- Worn tires and rubber products - stored in a specially equipped place with the indication "For used car tires", as they accumulate, they are taken out under an agreement;

- scrap metal waste - temporary storage area;

- metal shavings - in containers at a temporary storage site;

- the stubs of welding electrodes in metal containers;

- construction and repair waste (broken brick, removed bricking) generated by repair by contractors is temporarily placed on the site with a hard surface as it accumulates.