Cascade of HPP: on the eve of the 70th anniversary

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2018 is a jubilee year for the Cascade of HPPs. Construction of the Cascade of HPPs on the river. The Big Almaty was provided by the GOELRO plan back in 1920.

With the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War, the State Defense Committee of the USSR adopted a decision on the construction on the river. Large Alma-Atinka cascade of hydroelectric power plants to provide electricity to evacuated from the European part of the USSR factories and enterprises.

The design and preparatory work was started by the Leningrad branch of the Institute Hydroproject in 1942, and from April 1943 the construction of the first power plants began.

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The work was poorly mechanized and all labor-intensive operations were carried out almost manually. Managed the construction of the Cascade of Alma-Ata hydroelectric stations, Zhalel Isinkulovich Baigisiev, an excellent organizer, a specialist builder, demanding and responsive to people.

Selfless labor in the hardest conditions allowed already in April 1944 to put into operation the first-born of the future cascade - HPP 11. On September 5 and September 17 of the same year, electric current was given to the city of HPP-5 and HPP-9. In 1945, HPP-10 was put into operation, and in 1946 construction of HPP-6 and HPP-7 was completed. In March 1948, HPS-8 was put into operation. Hydroelectric power stations - 6,7,8 installed hydroelectric generators of the company "Lefel" (General Electric, USA), which are still in operation!

The official date for the formation of the Cascade HPP, as an operational enterprise in the "Kazakhenergo", was adopted on August 9, 1948.

"In 1942-1943 the capital of the republic took defense enterprises evacuated from the center of the country. In order for Alma-Ata to contribute to the victory, it was decided to begin construction of the Cascade of hydroelectric power stations on the river Bolshaya Alma-Atinka. The construction was declared folk.

Since April 1943, six thousand people have built the Cascade day and night, in harsh conditions, on scanty rations. From the front, the panfilov compatriots received words of encouragement: "Your work in the construction of the hydropower station will help to quickly put the spontaneous force of nature into the service of a common cause - the victory over fascism," wrote journalist A.Volodayev in the article "Blue Lightning" (newspaper "Ogni Alatau" № 4, 07/01/1981).

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The creation of the first stage of the cascade of power plants virtually eliminated the shortage of electricity in the power system. However, work on the use of water resources of the Bolshaya Almatinka river continued. In October 1953, the Ozernaya HPP-1 was put into operation with three Italian Ansaldo San Giorgio units, which are still in operation. It should be noted that HPP-1 is the highest-pressure hydroelectric power station in the entire space of the former USSR (H=573 m).

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With the introduction of HPP-2 in July 1959, the construction of hydroelectric power stations using the energy potential of water resources of the Big Almaty station was completed, and in 1960 the last station of the HPP Cascade - Talgar HPP-was put into operation.

The cascade of Almaty hydroelectric power stations, although small in capacity, is in fact, as if a Museum of various existing hydraulic structures-channels, pressure metal pipelines, sedimentation tanks, pressure pools with forty-retaining grids and Tyrolean-type dams with water intake through metal grates, pressure tunnels, siphons, etc. It should be noted that the last two wooden pressure pipelines – HPP-10 and HPP-11 were replaced with steel only in 1997-1998!

In the period from 1950 to 1960, power generation by power plants of the HPP Cascade in the total balance of the Almaty power system was 50-60 %. Now the share of annually generated electricity in the total production of Ales JSC does not exceed 5-6 %. For the entire period of existence, the company has produced more than 14.5 billion kWh of electricity, which is equivalent to covering the current consumption of the Almaty region and Almaty for three years. At the same time, in addition to the production of cheap electricity, the HPP Cascade plays an important role not only in providing water to the southern part of Almaty, but also the possibility of self-rotation of power plants which, in case of system accidents with the collapse of the power system, the loss of interconnections, full repayment of sources, will provide electricity for own needs of the nearest thermal power plants.

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Today it is necessary to remember those who stood at the origins of the enterprise, who by their heroic work ensured the performance of unique equipment to the present day. Bright memory to those who began to work with the origins of the enterprise and who are no longer with us. It Is Vorobyov, I. J., Lewin P. A., Nesterova L. I., Nikitin V. N., Kruglov V. F., Mikhailov V. I., Kotenkova O. A., The Ordinary O. T., Rozenblit, M. L, Dolgopolov, G. A., Dzhumanov A. S., Semenov S. S., Korshunov A. G., Rasskazov N. P. Belida N. And. Lapshin, B. I., L. I. Buryakov, Golushko O. F., Maltsev A. S., Churkin, S. M., Borodin, G. Y., Sattarova N.., Dankov A. Y., Saposin A. P., and others.

Until now, in health and well-deserved rest veterans of the enterprise, living witnesses and participants in the construction, formation and development of the HPP Cascade, the work and contribution of which can not be overestimated. It Okhrimenko M. J., Carpenter Z. L., Kapitonenko N. T., Chesnakov, V. P., Kapitonenko N. A. Uzdenov B. J., Kharchenko V. I., Semenov S. G. and Semenova, O. V., and many others.

And here's another fact. In 1943, Ualikhan Mukayev, father of Bulat Ualikhanov Mukayev, former Director of the Cascade of Alma-ATA HPP, took part in the construction of the first stations of the Cascade, as part of the military units of the 19-year-old boy.

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Particularly noteworthy is the fate of Boris Alexandrovich Rastoskuev. In June 1944, Rastoskuev BA, working on the construction of the Ust-Kamenogorsk HPP, was sent by the leadership of Kazgidroenergostroy to build the Cascade of Almaty HPPs, to provide technical assistance. The trip lasted for ten years. He began as a foreman, a senior foreman, then as the head of the construction site, chief of the PTO, and from 1947 to 1952 - chief engineer of the existing hydroelectric power plants of the Cascade. Rastoskuev BA in his book "Krasnoyarsk Hydroelectric Power Station: People and Achievements". wrote: "The energy of Alma-Ata was made by people thanks to which in a record short time this complicated division of the national economy blocked the giant distance from a low-power diesel turbine to a complex of diverse power plants, in the service of which the latest achievements in electrical engineering and electronics. Among the pioneers of the capital's energy industry will always remain the names of N.M. Makarova, S.S. Naboko, I.V. Fayermana, A.O. Arystanova, R.M. Sabotayeva, B.A. Rastoskueva, H.H. Khairulina, many others who gave us all-powerful electricity "

Selfless work and great experience of the engineer-hydropower contributed to the fact that in 1955, BA. Rastoskuev was sent to build the world's largest Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station. He gave this hydroelectric power station on the Yenisei for over thirty years - first as the head of the directorate of the station under construction, and from 1967 to 1989 the permanent director of the Krasnoyarsk hydro power plant. For outstanding contribution to the country's hydropower and labor valor BA Rastoskuev was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, laureate of the State Prize of the RSFSR, was awarded the USSR Council of Ministers Prize, the title of Honorary Energy of the USSR.

With what does the collective come to its anniversary? Over the last three decades, the enterprise collective, despite a number of objective difficulties related to the restructuring of the electric power industry, has achieved a permanent reliable operating condition of generating capacities and an annual sustainable level of electric power production.

This became possible thanks to the active veterans of production, a vast experience, the conscientiousness of which to this day serve as a vivid example for the young generation of power engineers. More than twenty years have been working at the enterprise and transferring their knowledge Voinov VV, Chesnakov OV, Radchenko SI, Linnik SM, Kulishov AV, Vinitskiy SV, Kiselev SV . and others. For 10-15 years Pryanishnikov NS, Dolgalev VN, Mironenko TV, Chasovnikova NG, Vasilieva SV, Vinitskaya AV, Kulishova GP are actively and fruitfully working. , Sattarov SA, Kolesnikov AA, Kulishov AV, SA Subbotin and others.

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The Cascade of HPPs is characterized by continuity of generations, when children and grandchildren continue to produce the best traditions of their fathers in production. These are the dynasties of the Popovs, Chesnakovs, Uzdenovs and others.

Today, the Cascade of HPPs is an operating unique facility that serves as a model for the effective solution of energy tasks in the context of using renewable natural resources for this purpose and, what is especially important now, with no harmful impact on the environment.

Despite its venerable age and associated inevitable changes and some losses (in 2000 the installed capacity of the Cascade of hydroelectric power plants was 47.7 MW, now 46.9 MW, and expected without 43.7 MW of the Talgar HPP), the Cascade of HPPs is and will remain in the future a reliable link in the power system of Almaty. A pledge to this is a highly professional team, who knows and loves his work.