Eco-urbanism or landscape urbanism of the city

2018-10-11 112946A city is an organism that constantly experiences its own transformation and modernization. There are no cities that absolutely stop in their development: even the degradation of urban space is somehow an objective manifestation of reactions to the surrounding reality, and even in abandoned cities life continues anyway - the truth is frozen for a certain period of time.

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Like any organism, the city must be in good shape - socially, politically, economically, and environmentally. We are talking about both developed megacities and towns with a small number of inhabitants, which, nevertheless, have not escaped the same changes of globalization. Often, the so-called eco-urbanism (biourbanistics) or landscape urbanism is resorted to as the main help for the improvement of urban space.

2018-10-11 112946All these urbanistic theories intersect with each other in practical implementation, sometimes they challenge each other – but in one way or another they help to form new layers of modern urban life.

Eco-urbanism is a trend in the architecture of the twentieth century, which is characterized by the design of structures using new properties of natural materials and naturally inscribed in the landscape of the urban environment. At the same time, the urban environment itself is considered as a natural landscape that needs to be supplemented with design and architecture objects. From the point of view of biourbanistics, of course, it should not be subjected to radical destruction.

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 Ecourbanistics is closely related to biology, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics and, of course, ecology. The city, even with the most comfortable living conditions, still remains hostile towards its residents, plunging them into the daily stress of existence. Eco-urbanism creates new conditions, forms new properties of life, and due to its integrated approach, removes from urban space everything that is alien to the natural environment. There are three main goals of ecourbanism:

- design and construction of buildings according to socio-ecological principles; - improvement of the environment in accordance with the natural needs of man and the ecosystem itself; - smooth but inevitable transition from fossil fuels to environmentally friendly resources, as well as deepening the organic interaction between cultural and physical factors in urban reality.

Without the context of eco-urbanism, it is impossible to imagine the development of such a trend as organic architecture. Organic architecture is an architecture of integrity. And architects who undertake such projects should follow not the ideas of total practicality, but the internal logic of natural forms of the environment. At the same time, it is extremely important to understand that organic architecture is an architecture of imitation of natural forms.

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Meanwhile, ecological urbanism would be impossible without the context of landscape urbanism. Landscape urbanism is based on the idea that the best method of organizing modern urban space is the design of the urban landscape.

Principles of landscape urbanism:

- it should erase all contradictions between urban space and landscape. They should be perceived as a whole.

- involves the disintegration or radical restructuring of the traditional boundaries of architecture and urban planning.

- covers huge scales - both in time and in space. Without a broad context, it is impossible to imagine a complete picture of modern urban reality.

- prepares urban spaces for action: economic, political, cultural, activist.

- considers landscapes from the point of view of its internal mechanics, makes the invisible visible.

- directly depends on the introduction of environmentally friendly systems into the urban environment, encourages hybridity between natural and engineering systems, recognizes the possibilities of adjustments inherent in the landscape, therefore it must adapt to these natural conditions without destroying them.

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Each of these urbanistic theories allows you to make a person's life more comfortable, more pleasant and healthier. A person turns from a destroyer of his own comfort zones into a creator again, resorting to the most modern architectural and design technologies. In the end, even the sickest urban organism can be cured – but for this you need to study and implement the ideas of modern urbanism that are not standing still.