Waste management system: the ninth and final stage of the waste technological cycle

Waste management system: the ninth and final stage of the waste technological cycle


Waste disposal (9th). At the first sub-stage of recycling, defective or disused products, their components and waste can be processed, with the elimination of newly generated waste. The second sub-stage of the technological cycle for the elimination of hazardous and other wastes is their safe placement at appropriate landfills or destruction.

Recycling of garbage is one of the ways to dispose of it. The most promising and rational. Meanwhile, neutralization, burial, and incineration are actively used.

Household waste disposal-methods


Disposal of household waste is carried out at special landfills (specially equipped sites). There are various technologies for laying garbage, most often they are rammed with a bulldozer. Among the advanced technologies - sorting of garbage (choose ferrous and non-ferrous metals, plastic, etc.), compaction of garbage using industrial presses . The garbage is formed into briquettes and buried in the ground. In the future, it is possible to extract "biogas" (mainly methane, a combustible gas, is released during the decomposition of organic matter). The most common way to dispose of a lot of waste. It is used for non-combustible waste, as well as those that emit dangerous substances and gases during the combustion process.Gorenje

Landfills for the disposal of solid waste, in most cases, use protective systems to prevent pollution and monitor the state of air, soil and groundwater. Of all the methods, this is the least expensive, but despite the numerous protective systems, it has a serious drawback — it is impossible to completely get rid of air, soil and water pollution.

Type: composting of waste.

A method for recycling organic substances and their derivatives using a natural process — decomposition. There are not many factories specializing in this type of processing. Basically, this method is used in private households. This is a well-known compost pit. The result of recycling in this way is compost used for fertilizing the soil.

Incineration of household waste . It is produced at special incineration plants. Preliminary partial sorting is carried out – metal is extracted with the help of electromagnets, etc. Forced air and/or oxygen blowing, complex treatment facilities of coarse and fine cleaning are used.

Variety: plasma processing. Recycling using high temperatures. Organic waste, under the influence of temperatures up to 5000 °C, turns into a gas that is safe for living beings and dissolves in air, and inorganic waste into a light glassy slag. This method is very effective, since it allows not only to completely dispose of garbage, but also to benefit from the heat released in the process of recycling, makes it possible to receive electricity, and the produced slag is used in construction.


Recycling is a developing and the most promising method of recycling both industrial and domestic waste. Hundreds of types of waste are recycled. Eg:

Used car tires are crushed into crumbs using a crusher , then rubber coatings, decorative mulch, etc. are produced in special reactors at a temperature of 4500 C.Rubber is also processed into fuel.


Lamps are mainly mercury-containing lamps in use, so they require special processing.

Paper waste: in hydraulic diluents, it is dissolved into fibers, purified from impurities by filtration, precipitation, and thermomechanical treatment. Then there is a discoloration and the formation of paper pulp. Cardboard, toilet paper, fuel briquettes, etc. are made by reuse. A separate procedure is provided for the disposal of official documents .

Used oils (motor, hydraulic, compression, etc.) are cleaned and regenerated using industrial plants. It is possible to obtain both oil and diesel fuel. However, the waste is not used much in special furnaces for heating .

Metal waste is collected, sorted (large parts are cut and pressed) and re-enters production by melting.

Used batteries : first cut the case, then drain the electrolyte. By melting, metal and plastic are separated, with the further use of components.

Processing of polymers, plastic waste-are processed into pellets, which are used in further production (plastic bottles, film).

Household and office equipment is sorted, parts containing drag are separated. metals, plastic, metal. How to order the disposal of office equipment . Special attention is paid to the processing of the cableOld furniture is disassembled and parts are sorted by materials.

Wood waste, shavings, sawdust are processed into pellets or into heating briquettes .

Batteries are disassembled into components, each of which has its own prospects for further use. Electroplating waste requires special care due to its toxicity. The glass is crushed and melted.

Fat waste is processed into a solid mass.

Solvents and paint and varnish materials can be used as fuel (after processing and only in some cases, since the material is very toxic).