In the previous issue of the heading " Man. Society. Nature" we have started to get acquainted with the waste management system as the main principle of the environmental legislation of the Republic, in this issue of the heading we will look in more detail at the first two stages of the technological cycle of production and consumption waste at the enterprise.


Stage 1-the appearance of waste.

As a result of the activity of any enterprise, the formation of various types of waste is possible, the amount and composition of which will depend on the specifics of the enterprise's work.

In accordance with the Environmental Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan, production waste is the remains of raw materials, materials, other products and products formed during production and have lost all or part of their original consumer properties; and consumption waste is the remains of products, products and other substances formed during their consumption or operation, as well as goods (products) that have lost all or part of their original consumer properties.

In order to ensure the protection of the environment and human health in the Republic of Kazakhstan, in order to reduce the amount of waste generated as a result of production activities and placed on the own landfills of enterprises, waste generation standards and limits for their placement are established, measures are being developed to reduce the anthropogenic impact of waste, and environmental monitoring is also being conducted.

The following tasks are being solved for the development of measures and monitoring:

- technological processes are identified, as a result of which the formation of waste is possible;

- hazard classes of waste are established and places of their temporary and / or permanent storage are organized;

- the analysis of possible ways of disposal and/or storage of production and consumption waste is carried out.


Stage 2 - collection and (or) accumulation of waste.


As a result of the activities of enterprises, the following types of waste are formed:

- mercury-containing lamps. Hazard class I;

- lead batteries are used, undamaged, with the electrolyte not drained. Hazard class II;

- used transmission, motor, industrial, compressor, transformer oils, halogen-free, polychlorinated biphenyls and terphenyls, turbine oils.Hazard class III;

- sludge for cleaning tanks from oil and petroleum products (oil sludge from cleaning gas station tanks and fuel oil tanks). Hazard class III;

- scrap and waste of ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Hazard class III;

- cleaning material contaminated with oils. Hazard class IV;

- the tires are used. Hazard class IV;

- non-polluted rubber products that have lost their consumer properties. Hazard class V;

- food waste and industrial consumption waste, similar to municipal waste (waste (garbage) from cleaning the territory and warehouse premises). Hazard class V;

– the glass fight is unpolluted (excluding the fight of the glass of cathode ray tubes and fluorescent lamps) and the remains/stubs of steel welding electrodes. Hazard class V;


- waste of paper and cardboard from stationery and office work. Hazard class V.