The main

In the section " Person. Society. Nature" we are beginning to get acquainted with the following group of the main pollutants of atmospheric air – nitrogen oxides, sulfur, carbon, solid particles.

The atmosphere is what surrounds the planet and forms a kind of dome that preserves the air and a certain environment that has been formed for thousands of years. It is she who allows humanity and all living things to breathe and exist. The atmosphere consists of several layers, and its structure includes different components. Nitrogen contains the most (slightly less than 78%), oxygen is in second place (about 20%). The amount of argon does not exceed 1%, and the proportion of carbon dioxide CO2 is completely negligible – less than 0.2-0.3%. And such a structure should be preserved and remain constant. If the ratio of elements changes, then the protective shell of the Earth does not perform its main functions.

Harmful emissions, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur, carbon, solid particles, enter the environment every day and almost constantly, which is associated with the rapid pace of development of civilization, everyone strives to buy a car and everyone heats their homes.

There are several classifications of emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere. So, they are divided into: organized and unorganized.

In the latter case, harmful substances enter the air from so-called unorganized and unregulated sources, which include waste storage facilities and warehouses of potentially dangerous raw materials, places of unloading and loading trucks and freight trains, overpasses.

The organized category consists of stationary emission sources. And according to their design features, they are divided into:

  • low (this includes emitting gases and harmful compounds together with ventilation air at a low level, often near buildings from which substances are removed);
  • high (this includes pipes through which the exhaust almost immediately penetrates into the atmospheric layers);
  • medium or intermediate (this includes intermediate dampers that are no more than 15-20% higher than the so-called zone of aerodynamic shadow created by structures.

The classification can be based on the particle size, which determines the penetrating abilities of the components and the dispersion of emissions in the atmosphere. This indicator is used to assess pollutants in the form of aerosols or dust. For the latter, the dispersion is divided into five groups, and for aerosol liquids – into four categories. And the smaller the components, the more rapidly they disperse through the air basin.