Waste management system: first, second and third stages of the technological waste cycle

In the previous issue of the heading " Humanity. Society. Nature" we started to get acquainted with the waste management system as the main principle of the environmental legislation of the Republic. In this issue, we will introduce the first, second, and third stages of the waste process cycle.

The appearance of waste (stage 1) takes place in technological and operational processes, as well as during the liquidation of facilities decommissioned at the end of their service life or for other reasons, with the formation of the corresponding waste of various hazard classes.

According to the degree of danger, production and consumption waste are divided into hazardous and non-hazardous.

 Hazardous wastes include wastes containing one or more of the following substances:

1) explosive;

2) flammable solids and liquids;

3) self-igniting substances and waste;

4) oxidizing substance;

5) organic peroxides and toxic substances;

6) toxic substances that cause prolonged and chronic diseases;

7) infectious substances;

8) corrosive substances;

9) Ecotoxic substances;

10) substances or wastes that emit flammable gases when in contact with water;

11) substances or wastes that may emit toxic gases when in contact with air or water;

12) substances and materials that can form other materials that have one of the above properties.

All other types of waste are considered non hazardous.

Collection and accumulation of waste (stage 2) in designated areas must be carried out on the territory of their owner or on another authorized territory.

Individuals and legal entities that generate waste in the course of their business activities must provide for safe handling measures and comply with environmental and sanitary-epidemiological requirements. At production facilities, waste collection and temporary storage is carried out at special sites corresponding to the waste hazard class. Waste as it accumulates is collected separately for each waste group according to the hazard class. Local Executive bodies are responsible for organizing a rational and environmentally safe system for collecting municipal waste, which provides for separate collection, storage and disposal of hazardous components of municipal waste, as well as cleaning the territory of the locality.

Waste identification (stage 3) can be visual and / or instrumental based on the characteristics, parameters, indicators, criteria, and requirements necessary to confirm that a particular waste and its properties match the documented description. For the purposes of transportation, disposal, storage and disposal, 3 levels of waste hazard are set in accordance with the Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal: green-index G; amber-index A; red-index R. According to the degree of impact on human health and the environment, waste is divided into the following five hazard classes: class 1 – extremely dangerous; class 2 – highly dangerous; class 3-moderately dangerous; class 4-slightly dangerous; class 5-non-hazardous.

The coding of waste takes into account the area of formation, the method of storage (disposal), the method of disposal or regeneration, potentially dangerous components, the type of hazard, and the sector of the economy where waste is generated.

Determination of the hazard level and coding of waste is made on the basis of the waste classifier, which is approved by the authorized body in the field of environmental protection. In cases where there is no corresponding waste in the waste classifier, as well as changes in production technology or switching to other raw materials, or when the hazardous properties of the waste may change, the hazard level and encoding of the waste is determined in accordance with the methodology for determining the hazard level and encoding of the waste.

The assignment of waste to a certain hazard level and a certain coding is carried out independently or with the involvement of organizations licensed to perform work and provide environmental services.