The main «pollutants» of the environment: greenhouse gases. Part 2

In the section «People. Society. Nature» we continue to get acquainted with the main «pollutants» that affect the environment, greenhouse gases.

The Republic of Kazakhstan, as a full-fledged participant in international processes, is actively contributing to the global challenges of sustainable development, including climate issues, and has made ambitious commitments that require comprehensive measures to «cleanse»  the national economy of carbon through decarbonization measures and introduce innovative «green»  «Technology and development of the domestic carbon market.

The process of developing a national greenhouse gas control system was launched in June 2010, after ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in 2009. The emission control system is a market mechanism that stimulates nature users to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by investing in new, «clean»  technologies, updating technical capacities, and creating new efficient production facilities.

Since 2018, the Republic of Kazakhstan has introduced a stimulating quota system – a new quota distribution principle based on specific greenhouse gas emission factors per unit of production. An enterprise whose greenhouse gas emissions per unit of output are higher than other enterprises will be allocated a smaller quota. On the environmental side, this approach «will encourage the least efficient enterprises to switch to the best technologies, upgrade, and implement projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions». The principle of operation of the system is to limit the use of natural resources in greenhouse gas emissions. Companies that reduce emissions below the limit set for them can sell «unused» quotas to other companies. Buyers of quotas are mainly companies that have difficulties in meeting their quantitative obligations.

Kazakhstan's emissions trading system (KZ STV) is the first of its kind in the Central Asian region, supported by the world Bank, which recommended continuing work on improving the emissions trading system (STV) as an internationally recognized effective mechanism to encourage enterprises to participate in carbon trading.

The Republic of Kazakhstan has made great efforts to develop a medium and long-term policy to reduce emissions, as well as an action plan to reduce GHG emissions by 2030.